[英文]

  • My girlfriend, ___ is on a journey, sent me a postcard.
    (A) who (B) which (C) that (D) what
  • Spring is the season during __ flowers are in bloom.
    (A) that (B) which (C) where (D) who
  • He wrote many stories, __ were love stories.
    (A) some of which (B) some of that
    (C) some of who (D) some of whom
  • He was the first student __ handed in the test.
    (A) which (B) whose (C) who (D) that

  • Chopsticks are the most important tools __ people in Taiwan use while they eat.
    (A) that (B) which (C) what (D) who
  • The dog __ owner is David is cute. (A) who (B) which (C) whose (D) how

  • I like a girl __ father is a police officer.

  • It was raining hard __ prevented me from going to school.
    (A) ,who (B) ,which (C) ,that (D) , what

基本關係代名詞

先行詞 主詞 受詞 所有格
who whom whose
事物 which which of which/whose
人 & 事物同時 that that —-
先行詞包含人及事物時,僅能使用 that 且沒有所有格。

例句:被困在著火的房子裡的老人與狗,已被救出
(1) An old man and his dog that were trapped in the burning house where saved. (O)
(2) An old man and his dog which were trapped in the burning house where saved. (X)
(3) An old man and his dog who were trapped in the burning house where saved. (X)

採用 who 或 which 開頭的疑問句,句中的關係代名詞必須用 that。

(1) Who is the woman that just called?(O)
(2) Who is the woman who just called?(X)

五個判斷關係子句的關係代名詞

  • 看到逗號就不用 that (逗號是非限定關係) 可能是 Who 或是 Which,此處依所取代的對象是人或是物決定

    My girlfriend, ___ is on a journey, sent me a postcard.
    (A) who (B) which (C) that (D) what

  • 看到介系詞(of, at, in, on, during) 就不用 that,而且在介系詞後就必須是受詞所以可能是 Whom (受詞) 或是 Which

    Spring is the season during __ flowers are in bloom.
    (A) that (B) which (C) where (D) who

    He wrote many stories, __ were love stories.
    (A) some of which (B) some of that
    (C) some of who (D) some of whom

  • 看到最高級,例如:the first, the last 就不用 who 及 which 而採用 that 或是省略

    He was the first student __ handed in the test.
    (A) which (B) whose (C) who (D) that

    Chopsticks are the most important tools __ people in Taiwan use while they eat.
    (A) that (B) which (C) what (D) who

  • 所有格直接選 whose

    The dog __ owner is David is cute. (A) who (B) which (C) whose (D) how

    I like a girl __ father is a police officer.

  • 代稱整件事件直接選 which 關係子句又稱做形容詞子句,前面的例子都是用於描述人、物,而用於描述事件時採用的代名稱為 which

    It was raining hard __ prevented me from going to school.
    (A) ,who (B) ,which (C) ,that (D) , what

逗號的差異

(1) Jeff has a girlfriend who lives in Taipei.
Jeff 有個住在台北的女朋友。
(2) John has a girlfriend, who lives in Taipei.
John 有個女朋友,她住在台北。

兩句的差異在於 Jeff 在台北有個女朋支,而 John 的女朋友住在台北。

關係副詞 where / when / why

關係副詞 地點 時間 理由
介係詞 + which where when why
關係副詞 = 介係詞 + which

where

例句:這就是他被謀殺的房間

未使用關係代名詞連接句子

This is the room.
He was murdered in the room.

有使用關係代名詞連接句子,可以有以下兩種寫法:

(1) This is the room which he was murdered in.    
(2) This is the room in which he was murdered.

將其中的 [ in which ] 改成代替地點的關係副詞 where 後,則前面的例句以關係副詞串起來就是:

This is the room where he was murdered.

when

例句:我記得我們分手的那一天。

未使用關係代名詞連接句子

I remenber the day.
We broke up on the day.

有使用關係代名詞連接句子,可以有以下兩種寫法:

(1) I remenber the day which we broke up on.    
(2) I remenber the day on which we broke up.

將其中的 [ on which ] 改成代替地點的關係副詞 when 後,則前面的例句以關係副詞串起來就是:

I remenber the day when we broke up.

why

例句:這是我不原諒他的原因之一。

未使用關係代名詞連接句子

This is the reason.
I will never forgive him for the reason.

有使用關係代名詞連接句子,可以有以下兩種寫法:

(1) This is the reason which I will never forgive him for.    
(2) This is the reason for which I will never forgive him.    

將其中的 [ for which ] 改成代替地點的關係副詞 why 後,則前面的例句以關係副詞串起來就是:

This is the reason why I will never forgive him.

複合關係代名詞 what

複合關係代名詞 = 先行詞 + 關係代名詞

例句:金錢常引誘我們做不該做的事

未使用關係代名詞連接句子

Money ofter tempts us to do the things.
We shouldn't do the things.

使用關係代名詞連接句子:

Money ofter tempts us to do the things which we shouldn't do.    

將其中的 [ the things which ] 改成複合關係代名詞 what 後,則前面的例句以關係副詞串起來就是:

Money ofter tempts us to do what we shouldn't do.     # what VS that

兩者的差異在於代表的句子的「完整」程度,也就是在所代表的句子中 that 是不需要的,而 what 則是其代表句子的一部分。

例句:他辭職了這件事是千真萬確的。

That he quit this job is true.

這裡使用 that 代表「he quit his job」這個句子,沒有 that 這個句子依然完整。

例句:他說的話是真的。

What he said is true.

這個使用 what 來代表「he said」這段,同時 what 也是這段可以構成句子的一部分「he said what」也就是 what 同時代表了「他說的話」這個句子,也是「說的內容」的代稱。

參考來源